Optical Fibers

Optical Fibers

Chalcogenide IR-Glass Fiber (CIR Fiber) Chalcogenide Infra Red (CIR) glasses are the best As2S3-based material for fiber optics in the range of 1.5-6m.

Square Core Fibers

Square core fibers excel in specific applications where traditional circular core fibers with Gaussian outputs are not ideal. The uniform “top hat” intensity profile these fibers provide are the desired output profile when performing tasks such as welding, photolithography, and spectroscopy. Square core fibers with round claddings are also excellent candidates for use in the laser diode industry, where the square shape enables a more ideal coupling match with the diode source. We offer pure silica square core fibers with a fluorine doped cladding (0.22 NA) in a wide range of core diameters from 100 μm to 1000 μm.

square fiber

Applications

  • Laser materials processing
  • Astronomical spectroscopy
  • Non-circular diode beam coupling
  • Photolithography

Features

  • Homogenized output distribution
  • Top hat beam profile
  • Greater capture area than round fibers for square inputs
  • Broad application wavelengths: 190nm to 1250nm (High OH) and 300nm to 2400nm (Low OH)
  • Various jacketing options: Acrylate, Nylon or Polyimide
Numerical Aperture 0.22 ±0.02
Core Sizes (Flat to Flat) 100 μm to 1000 μm
Typical Clad/Core Ratio (RD clad ) 1.2 (diagonal to Clad OD)
Dimensional Tolerances
-Core/ Clad/ Jacket
-Corner Rounding in Core (R/L)

±2%/ ±2%/ ±5%
≤ 25%
Jacketing Options & Temp Range:
-Acrylate
-Nylon
-Polyimide

-40°C to +85 °C
-40°C to +100 °C
-190°C to +350°C

Proof Test Level (4 axis bend)
-Acrylate/ Nylon
-Polyimide

100 kpsi
50 kpsi
Anti-Reflective Coating Option Standard thin film coatings or RARe Motheye Nanosurfacing available upon request
Fiber Series Core Clad OH Content
STASQR Square Round Low
STSSQR Square Round High

Al-Coated Silica Fibers

Aluminum coated silica fibers are the optimal solution for applications in high temperature, vacuum and harsh environment conditions.

Al-coated fibers have all benefits of silica-silica fibers. Additional significant advantages include a superior mechanical strength and better fatigue resistance compared to polymer coated fibers.

The transmission range spans 220 to 2400nm depending on UV or NIR silica fiber core choice. The working temperature range is from -270°C to 400°C; humidity – up to 100%.

Main features:

  • Working temperatures up to 400°C
  • Excellent mechanical strength and flexibility
  • No outgassing under high vacuum conditions
  • Solderable into connectors (epoxy-free option)
  • Effective heat rejection along metal coating
  • Steaming, ETO, steam, e-beam or gamma sterilizable

Applications:

  • High temperature environment
  • Harsh Chemical environment
  • Nuclear radiation resistant devices
  • Down-hole sensing for oil and gas industry
  • High Power Laser delivery
  • Medical applications

Parameters of Standard Al-coated Fibers

Code Type Core, μm Cladding, μm Coating Cu, μm NA
ST100/110 Al Step Index Multimode 100 ± 2% 110 ± 2% 145 ± 5% 0.22
ST200/220 Al Step Index Multimode 200 ± 2% 220 ± 2% 270 ± 5% 0.22
ST400/440 Al Step Index Multimode 400 ± 2% 440 ± 2% 535 ± 5% 0.22
ST600/660 Al Step Index Multimode 600 ± 2% 660 ± 2% 745 ± 5% 0.22
ST50/125 Al Graded Index Multimode 50 ± 2% 125 ± 2% 165 ± 2% 0.22
ST9/125 Al Graded Index Multimode 9 ± 5% 125 ± 5% 165 ± 2% 0.13

Specifications

Core/ Cladding material Step Index Pure Fused Silica Core / Fluorine Doped Silica Cladding
Graded Index Germanium Doped Fused Silica Core / Pure Fused Silica
Fiber core diameters, μm 9; 50; 62.5; 100; 200; 400; 600
Al coating thickness, μm 15 – 150 (depending on fiber diameter)
Standard Numerical Aperture (NA) 0.22 ± 0.02
Available Numerical Aperture (NA) 0.12 ± 0.02 / 0.26 ± 0.02
Min operating temperature, °C -270
Max operating temperature, °C +400
Humidity Range Up to 100%
Minimal bending radius (long term) 200 x fiber outer diameter
Minimal bending radius (short term) 100 x fiber outer diameter
Tensile strength (short gauge), GPa 3.5 – 6
Two point bending strength, GPa >10
Static fatigue parameter >100

Cu-alloy Coated Silica Fibers

Our copper-alloy coated silica fibers are the optimal solution for applications in high temperature, vacuum and harsh environment conditions.

Cu-alloy coated fibers have all benefits of silica-silica fibers. Additional significant advantages include a superior mechanical strength and better fatigue resistance compared to polymer coated fibers.

The transmission range spans 220 to 2400nm depending on UV or NIR silica fiber core choice. The working temperature range is from -270°C to 600°C; humidity – up to 100%.

Main features

  • Working temperatures up to 600°C
  • Excellent mechanical strength and flexibility
  • No outgassing under high vacuum conditions
  • Solderable into connectors (epoxy-free option)
  • Effective heat rejection along metal coating
  • Steaming, ETO, steam, e-beam or gamma sterilizable

Applications

  • High temperature environments
  • Harsh chemical environments
  • Nuclear radiation resistant devices
  • Down-hole sensing for oil and gas industry
  • High power laser delivery
  • Medical applications
  • Soldered fiber bundles

Specification of Cu-alloy Coated Fibers

Core/ Cladding material Step Index Pure Fused Silica Core / Fluorine Doped Silica Cladding
Graded Index Germanium Doped Fused Silica Core / Pure Fused Silica
Fiber core diameters, μm 9; 50; 62.5; 100; 200; 400; 600
Cu-alloy coating thickness, μm 15 – 50 (depending on fiber diameter)
Standard Numerical Aperture (NA) 0.22 ± 0.02
Available Numerical Aperture (NA) 0.12 ± 0.02 / 0.26 ± 0.02
Min operating temperature, °C -270
Max operating temperature, °C +600
Humidity Range Up to 100%
Minimal bending radius (long term) 200 x fiber outer diameter
Minimal bending radius (short term) 100 x fiber outer diameter
Tensile strength (short gauge), GPa 3.5 – 6
Two point bending strength, GPa >10
Static fatigue parameter >100

Parameters of Standard Cu-alloy Coated Fibers

Code Type Core, μm Cladding, μm Coating Cu, μm NA
100/110 Cu Step Index Multimode 100 ± 2% 110 ± 2% 145 ± 5% 0.22
200/220 Cu Step Index Multimode 200 ± 2% 220 ± 2% 270 ± 5% 0.22
400/440 Cu Step Index Multimode 400 ± 2% 440 ± 2% 535 ± 5% 0.22
600/660 Cu Step Index Multimode 600 ± 2% 660 ± 2% 745 ± 5% 0.22
50/125 Cu Graded Index Multimode 50 ± 2% 125 ± 2% 165 ± 2% 0.22
9/125 Cu Graded Index Multimode 9 ± 5% 235 ± 5% 165 ± 2% 0.13

Chalcogenide IR-Glass Fiber (CIR Fiber)

Chalcogenide As-S glass fiber transmits IR-radiation in the spectral range of 1.1–6.5μm. High performance CIR core/clad fiber are drawn with core diameters span from 8µm to 500µm.

Advanced drawing process with double polymer jacket provides a superior mechanical strength and high flexibility of CIR- fibers.

Low optical losses and small absorption peaks over the mentioned spectral range ensure a successful use of CIR-fiber for a wide range of applications.

Features

  • High transmittance in the range 1.1 – 6.5μm
  • Low optical losses of about 0.2 – 0.3 dB/m at 2.5 – 4µm and 4.5 – 5µm
  • Core/Clad structure with core diameters span from 8 to 500μm
  • Double polymer coating for high flexibility

Applications

  • Mid IR spectroscopy
  • Flexible IR pyrometry
  • Flexible IR-imaging Systems
  • Power delivery for quantum cascade lasers

Fiber specification

Transmission Range 1.5 - 6μm
Core/Clad Structure As2S3/As-S
Core/Clad Diameter 200-500/300-600μm
Core Refractive Index 2.4
Effective NA 0.28
Protective Coating Double Polymer Jacket
Ambient Temperature Range 270 - 370 K

CIR Infrared Optical Fiber Standard Cables

Chalcogenide Infra Red (CIR) (1.5 - 6μm) fiber is drawn in core/clad structure with double polymer coating and characterized by a low optical losses and high flexibility. Delivery is from stock or within few weeks ARO. All standard cables include PEEK-polymer protective jacket and SMA termination.

Parameters of standard Chalcogenide fibers

Part Number STCIR8/300 STCIR 50/250 STCIR 250/300 STCIR 340/400 STCIR 500/550
Type Step Index Single-mode Step Index Few-mode Step Index Multimode Step Index Multimode Step Index Multimode
Core Dia., µm 8±1 50±3 250±10 340±10 500±10
Cladding Dia., µm 300±15 250±10 300±15 400±15 550±15
Protective Jacket Dia., µm 400±20 410 ± 20 400 ±30 510 ± 30 700 ± 30
NA 0.25 ± 0.02 0.13 ± 0.02 0.30 ± 0.03 0.30 ± 0.03 0.30 ± 0.03
Min Bending Radius,mm 60 50 60 80 100

Specifications

Core/cladding composition As2S3
Spectral Range 1.1 – 6.5μm
Core Refractive Index 2.42
Fresnel Reflection Losses 31%
Attenuation at 3 – 4μm & 4.5µm – 5µm 0.2 – 0.4dB/m
Effective Numerical Aperture NA see Parameters of standard Chalcogenide fibers
Glass Transition Temperature, Tg 185 °C
Operating Temperature –273°C to +90°C
Core/Clad Diameter (standard) see Parameters of standard Chalcogenide fibers
Protective Jacket Fluoro polymer + PVC
Tensile Strength >70 MPa
Minimum Bending Radius (fixed) 100x [Fiber Diameter]
Minimum Elastic Bending Radius 200x [Fiber Diameter]

Polycrystalline Infra Red Fibers (PIR – Fibers)

The development of specialty fibers for the Mid-Infrared region has resulted in a unique product - Core /

Clad Polycrystalline Infra-Red (PIR-) fibers. The PIR-fibers are non-toxic, very flexible, transparent across a broad spectral region 4 -18μm and capable of operating over the wide temperature range of 4K up to 420K. They are manufactured in a core/clad structure of superior quality from pure AgCl: AgBr solid solution crystals using an innovative vacuum extrusion method. They possess by no aging effect compared to an alternative bare core fiber. The range of PIR-fiber cables are available with a durable PEEK polymer jacket and terminations using either an SMA - type connector with a Ti or polymer ferrule or special one, manufactured on customer request. A wide variety of different optical coupling units can also be designed & fabricated for specialized customer requirements.

Fiber Features:

  • High transmittance in the range 3 – 18μm
  • Low optical losses of about 0.2 – 0.3 dB/m in the range 9 – 13µm
  • Core/Clad structure with core diameters span from 240 to 860μm
  • Minimal aging effect
  • Non-hydroscopic and non-toxic

Applications

  • Mid IR spectroscopy
  • Flexible IR pyrometry
  • Flexible IR-Imaging systems
  • Power delivery for quantum cascade Lasers
  • Power delivery for CO and CO2 Lasers

Parameters of Standard Polycrystalline fibers

Part Number STPIR240/300 STPIR400/500 STPIR600/700 STPIR900/1000
Type Step Index Multimode Step Index Multimode Step Index Multimode Step Index Multimode
Core Dia., µm 240±10 400±10 600±10 860±20
Cladding Dia., µm 300+0/-10 500+0/-15 700+0/-15 1000+0/-20
Protective Jacket Dia., µm no no no no
NA 0.35±0.05 0.35±0.05 0.35±0.05 0.35±0.05
Min. bending Radius, mm 45 75 100 150

Specifications

Core/cladding composition AgCl:AgBr
Spectral Range 3 – 18μm
Core Refractive Index 2.15
Fresnel Reflection Losses 25%
Attenuation at 10.6 µm 0.2 – 0.4dB/m
Effective Numerical Aperture NA 0.35 +/- 0.05
Melting Point 410 °C
Operating Temperature –273 to +140°C
Core/Clad Diameter (standard) see Parameters of standard Polycrystalline fibers
Laser Damage Threshold for CW CO2 laser >12kW/cm²
Tensile Strength > 70MPa
Minimum Bending Radius (fixed) 5 x [Fiber Diameter]
Minimum Elastic Bending Radius 150 x [Fiber Diameter]

PIR-fibers are protected by a loose PEEK-jacket (PolyEtherEtherKetone) to provide stiff, flexible and hermetic protection against mechanical, photoinduced and chemical damage over a wide temperature range up to 250°C.

Standard Cable termination with a special Ti-ferrule SMA-connector:

  • for low power (spectroscopy & radiometry) applications;
  • for high laser power delivery - free standing fiber end ;
  • standard cable length - 1m & 2m.

PIR-fiber end-surface treatment:

  • Cutting low cost, high performance - standard;
  • Polishing for special application, including AR-coating - on request;
  • SMART for reduced reflection of high CO2-laser intensity - on request.

Options

  • accessory kits for remote spectroscopy with FTIR, QCL and TDL-spectrometers;
  • pig-tailing of IR-detectors: TE- & LN-cooled MCT, PbSe, thermopiles, etc.

Diverse Methods of AR-coating and SMART-treatment

Comparison of Standard and Spectral PIR-fibers

Comparison of CIR- and PIR-Fibers

Typical transmission spectra of 1.5m long PIR-900/1000 fiber (red) versus CIR-750/850 fiber (blue) (includes reflection & coupling losses at fiber ends without AR coating and some absorption bands of atmospheric moisture, etc.)

Typical specification of CIR- and PIR-fibers

No. Parameter CIR-Fiber PIR-Fiber
1 Transmission range 1.5 to 6μm or 1600- 6500cm-1 3 to 18μm or 550 - 3300cm-1
2. Core/Clad structure materials Chalcogenide As-S glasses AgCl:AgBr solid solution crystals
3. Specific Features Toxic & Fragile, Non-hygroscopic Non-toxic, Non-hygroscopic, very flexible, slightly UV-sensitive
4. Core/Clad diameter 200-500/300-600μm 400/500, 630/700, 700x700, 900/1000μm
5. Core refractive index 2,4 2,2
6. Effective NA 0,28 0,25
7. Optical losses Minimum of 0,2dB/m at wavelengths 2-4μm Minimum of 0,2-0,3dB/m at wavelengths 10-12μm
8. Operation temperature From 270 to 370K From 4 to 420K
9. Max length of cable Up to 50-100 meters Up to 20-40 meters

Comparison of PIR- and CIR-Fibers Transmission Spectra for 1.5m length